Turtles are characterized by a shell, modified mainly from their ribs. Modern turtles are divided into two major groups, the Pleurodira (side necked turtles) and Cryptodira (hidden necked turtles), based on the way the head retracts.

There are 360 living species found on most continents and islands and marine species that live for the most part in the oceans, coming to shore only to breed.

Turtle shells are made of bone, the carapace (upper dome) which develop into broad flat plates that join up to cover the body and the plastron (underside plate). The outer surface of the shell is covered in scales made of keratin.

Turtles are ectotherms (cold-blooded), meaning that their internal temperature varies with their direct environment. Turtles are omnivorous, feeding mainly on plants and animals sometimes migrate short distances seasonally due to their limited movement. Sea turtles are the only turtles that migrate considerable distances to lay eggs on favored beaches.

Source: Wikipedia

Family Geoemydidae (Eurasian Pond, River, and Neotropical Wood Turtles)

Subfamily Geoemydinae

Heosemys spinosa
(Spiny Hill Terapin)
(Johore, Malaysia)

Family Testudinidae (Tortoises)

Astrochelys radiata
(Radiated Tortoise)
(Akanin’ ny Nofy, Madagascar)