A frog is any member of short-bodied, tailless amphibians of the order Anura. Frogs are widely distributed, from the tropics to subarctic regions, with the highest diversity concentrated in the tropical rainforest. Frogs account for around 88% of extant amphibian species and are one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Warty frog species tend to be called toads by the layman, and there is no official taxonomic distinction.

An adult frog has a stout body, protruding eyes, anteriorly attached tongue, limbs folded underneath, and tailless. Frogs have glandular skin, with secretions ranging from distasteful to toxic, an anti-predation characteristic. Their skin varies in colour from well-camouflaged dappled brown, grey and green to avoid detection to vivid colorful patterns to warn of would-be predators of toxicity. Adult frogs live in fresh water and on dry land; some species are adapted for living underground or in trees.

Frogs lay their eggs in water, and these hatch into tadpoles that have tails and internal gills. They have highly specialized rasping mouth parts suitable for herbivorous, omnivorous or planktivorous diets. The life cycle is completed when they metamorphose into adults. Compared to their omnivores young, adult frogs are carnivorous, and have a diet consisting of small invertebrates. There are a few species that are omnivorous, but these are rather rare.

Frogs are an important food source for predators and are extremely important to food webs of many of the world’s ecosystems. Their skin is semi-permeable, making them susceptible to dehydration and so usually found in moist places. Some do exploit drier habitats or seasonal dry habitats, by having behavioral adaptation such as burrowing themselves deep in the ground where there is moisture and only emerging when the rainy season arrives. Vocalisation are also extremely important to frogs, especially for communication during breeding season, when they exhibit a myriad of complex behaviors to attract mates, to fend off predators and survive.

Frogs are valued as food by humans and as environmental indicators due to their susceptibility of their skin.  Declines in frog populations are often an indicator of environmental degradation, and populations have seen significant decline since the 1950s which is extremely alarming. Currently, more than a third of all frog species are considered threatened with extinction and over 120 species are believed to have become extinct in the past 40 years. Today, a new threat for frogs has emerged, a fungal disease chytridiomycosis cause malformation in frog population, which has spread globally.

Source: Wikipedia

Family Bufonidae (True Toads)

Ansonia hanitschi
(Kinabalu Slender Toad)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Ansonia inthanon
(Inthanon Stream Toad)
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Ansonia longidigita
(Long-fingered Slender Toad)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Ansonia spinulifer
(Spiny Slender Toad)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Duttaphrynus melanostictus
(Asian Toad)
(Singapore)
Ingerophrynus divergens
(Crested Toad)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Ingerophrynus parvus
(Lesser Toad)
(Khao Sok, Thailand)
Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus
(Four-ridged Toad)
(Singapore)
Pelophryne api
(Api Dwarf Toad)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Pelophyrne ingeri
(Inger’s Dwarf Toadlet)
(Johore, Malaysia)
Phrynoidis aspera
(River Toad)
(Khao Sok, Thailand)
Phrynoidis juxtasper
(Giant River Toad)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Rhinella horribilis (Giant Toad)
(Sumaco, Ecuador)

Family Centrolenidae (Glass Frogs)

Subfamily Centroleninae

Espadarana prosoblepon
(Variable Glass Frog)
(Mindo, Ecuador)
Espadarana sp. 0F1A1154
(Variable Glass Frog)
(Milpe, Ecuador)
Espadarana sp. 0F1A1472
(Variable Glass Frog)
(Milpe, Ecuador)

Family Dicroglossidae (Fork-tongued Frogs)

Subfamily Dicroglossinae

Fejervarya limnocharis
(Field Frog)
(Singapore)
Limnonectes blythi
(Blyth’s River Frog)
(Kaeng Krachan, Thailand)
Limnonectes haschaenus
(Hill Forest Frog)
(Khao Sok, Thailand)
Limnonectus kuhlii
(Kuhl’s Creek Frog)
(Sabah Malaysia)
Limnonectes macrognathus
(Big-heaed Frog)
(Phuket, Thailand)
Limnonectes malesianus
(Malesian Frog)
(Singapore)
Limnonectes plicatellus
(Rhinoceros Frog)
(Singapore)

Subfamily Occidozyginae

Occidozyga leavis
(Yellow-bellied Puddle Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Occidozyga sumatrana
(Sumatran Puddle Frog)
(Singapore)

Family Hylidae (Tree frogs and allies)

Subfamily Cophomantinae (Wagler neotropical tree frogs)

Boana almendarizae
(Almendariz’s Tree Frog)
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Boana picturata
(Imbabura Tree Frog)
(Milpe, Ecuador)
Hyloscirtus alytolylax
(Mindo, Ecuador)

Subfamily Dendropsophinae (Fitzinger neotropical tree frogs)

Dendropsophus carnifex
(Executioner Clown Frog)
(Mindo, Ecuador)
Dendropsophus sarayacuensis
(Mottled Clown Frog)
(Sumaco, Ecuador)

Subfamily Lophyohylinae

Osteocephalus verruciger
(Sumaco, Ecuador)

Subfamily Scinaxinae

Scinax ruber
(Sumaco, Ecuador)

Family Hyperoliidae (African Reed Frogs)

Subfamily Hyperoliinae

Heterixalus alboguttatus
(Ranomafana, Madagascar)
Heterixalus betsileo
(Antananarivo, Madagascar)
Heterixalus madagascariensis
(Akanin’ ny Nofy, Madagascar)

Family Mantellidae (Mantellas)

Subfamily Boophinae

Boophis bottae
(Andasibe, Madagascar)
Boophis goudoti
(Andasibe, Madagascar)
Boophis guibei
(Andasibe, Madagascar)
Boophis idae
(Andasibe, Madagascar)
Boophis madagascariensis
(Ranomafana, Madagascar)
Boophis picturatus
(Andasibe, Madagascar)
Boophis pyrrhus
(Andasibe, Madagascar)
Boophis sibilans
(Andasibe, Madagascar)
Boophis tasymena
(Andasibe, Madagascar)
Boophis tephraeomystax
(Antananarivo, Madagascar)
Boophis viridis
(Andasibe, Madagascar)

Subfamily Mantellinae

Gephyromantis cornutus
(Ranomafana, Madagascar)
Gephyromantis moseri
(Andasibe, Madagascar)
Guibemantis aff. liber
(Ranomafana, Madagascar)
Mantella baronii
(Ranomafana, Madagascar)
Spinomantis aglavei
(Andasibe, Madagascar)

Family Megophryidae (Asian toads)

Subfamily Leptobrachiinae

Leptobrachella fritinniens
(Twittering Slender Litter Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Leptobrachella parva
(Gunung Mulu Borneo Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Leptobrachella picta
(Painted Slender Litter Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Leptobrachium abbotti
(Lowland Litter Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Leptobrachium huashen
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Leptobrachium montanum
(Montane Large-eyed Litter Frog)
(Sabah Malaysia)
Leptobrachium nigrops
(Black-eyed Litter Frog)
(Singapore)
Leptolalax pictus
(Painted Sender Litter Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)

Subfamily Megophryinae

Boulenophrys parva
(Concave-crowned Horned Toad)
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Megophrys nasuta
(Malayan Horned Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Pelobatrachus baluensis
(Kinabalu Horned Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Xenophrys major
(Glandular Horned Toad)
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)

Family Microhylidae (Narrowmouth toads)

Subfamily Cophylinae

Plethodontohyla mihanika
(Ranomafana, Madagascar)

Subfamily Kalophryninae

Kalophrynus baluensis
(Kinabalu Sticky Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Kalophrynus heterochirus
(Variable Sticky Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Kalophrynus intermedius
(Intermediate Sticky Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Kalophrynus limbooliati
(Black-spotted Sticky Frog)
(Singapore)
Kalophrynus meizon
(Borneon Sticky Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)

Subfamily Microhylinae

Chaperina fusca
(Yellow-spotted Narrow-Mouthed Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Kaloula latidisca
(Khao Sok, Thailand)
Metaphrynella sundana
(Bornean Tree Hole Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Microhyla berdmorei
(Large Pygmy Frog)
(Khao Sok, Thailand)
Microhyla heymonsi
(Dark-sided Chorus Frog)
(Singapore)
Microhyla malang
(Bornean Narrow-mouthed Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Microhyla mukhlesuri
(East Asian Ornate Chorus Frog)
(Singapore)
Microhyla perparva
(Least Narrow-mouthed Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)

Family Ranidae (Typical frogs)

Amolops archotaphus
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Amolops marmoratus
(Marbled Cascade Frog)
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Amolops panhai
(Tenasserim Cascade Frog)
(Khao Sok, Thailand)
Chalcorana raniceps
(Borneo White-lipped Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Clinotarsus penelope
(Penelope’s Hill Frog)
(Khao Sok NP, Thailand)
Hylarana labialis
(Copper-cheeked Frog)
(Singapore)
Indosylvirana nicobariensis
(Nicobarese Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Meristogenys jerboa
(Western Torrent Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Meristogenys kinabaluensis
(Kiau Borneo Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Meristogenys sp.
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Odorrana chloronota
(Green Cascade Frog)
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Odorrana hosii
(Poisonous Rock Frog)
(Tawau Hills, Sabah, Malaysia)
Pulchrana baramica
(Brown Kerangas Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Pulchrana glandulosa
(Rough-sided Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Pulchrana laterimaculata
(Masked Rough-sided Frog)
(Singapore)
Staurois guttatus
(Black-spotted Rock Skipper)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Staurois tuberilinguis
(Green-spotted Rock Skipper)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Staurois latopalmatus
(Sabah Splash Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Sylvirana malayana
(Khao Sok, Thailand)
Sylvirana​ nigrovittata
(Black-striped Frog)
(Kaeng Krachan, Thailand)

Family Rhacophoridae (Shrub Frogs)

Subfamily Rhacophorinae

Feihyla kajau
(Charming Tree Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Gracixalus​ carinensis
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Kurixalus chaseni
(Chasen’s Frilled Tree Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Leptomantis harrissoni
(Brown Tree Frog)
(TSabah, Malaysia)
Nyctixalus pictus
(Cinnamon Tree Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Philautus amoenus
(Kamboranga Bush Frog)
(Sabah Malaysia)
Philautus aurantium
(Golden-legged Bush Frog)
(Sabah Malaysia)
Philautus davidlabangi
(Sabah Malaysia)
Philautus hosii
(Hose’s Bush Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Philautus macroscellis
(Mossy Bush Frog)
(Sabah Malaysia)
Philautus tectus
(G. Mulu Bubble-nest Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Polypedates colletti
(Collett’s Tree Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Polypedates leucomystax
(Four-lined Tree Frog)
(Singapore)
Polypedates macrotis
(Dark-eared Tree Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Polypedates​ megacephalus
(Brown Tree Fog)
(Kaeng Krachan, Thailand)
Polypedates otilophus
(File-eared Tree Frog)
(Sabah, Malaysia)
Raorchestes​ longchuanensis
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Raorchestes parvulus
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Rhacophorus nigropalmatus
(Wallace’s Flying Frog)
(Khao Sok, Thailand)
Rhacophorus pardalis
(Harlequin Flying Frog)
(Sarawak, Malaysia)
Rhacophorus​ rhodopus​
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Theloderma​ albopunctatum
(Dotted Bubble-nest Frog)
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)
Zhangixalus dulitensis
(Dulit Flying Frog)
(Sabah, Malalysia)
Zhangixalus feae
(Fea’s Flying Tree Frog)
(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)

Family Strabomantidae (Terrestrial breeding frogs)

Subfamily Pristimantinae

Pristimantis achatinus
(Mindo, Ecuador)
Pristimantis actites
(Milpe, Ecuador)
Pristimantis appendiculatus
(Pinocchio Rainfrog)
(Tandayapa, Ecuador)
Pristimantis colonensis
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis katoptroides
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis labiosus
(Milpe, Ecuador)
Pristimantis mindo
(Mindo, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A5504
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A6984
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A9132
(Tandayapa, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A5568
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A1385
(Milpe, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A0520
(Mindo, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A0972
(Mindo, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A4448
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A4945
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A5105
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A6064
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A7332
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A7533
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A7535
(Sumaco, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A8798
(Tandayapa, Ecuador)
Pristimantis sp. 0F1A9176
(Tandayapa, Ecuador)